Polylactic acid (PLA)

Polylactic acid is a synthetic polymer based on renewable sources (D-, L-lactic acid). It is a bio-degradable polymer and it is often known as poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (abbreviation PLA). PLA is a thermoplastic polyester . The enzymatic degradation is slow and depends on the type of copolymer, degree of crystallinity and additives. The polymer C(CH3)(OH)HCOOH is synthesized by condensation of lactic acid. PLA is in part used as a replacement for some of the fossil-fuel based synthetic polymers.

While in general it is accepted that the ester bonds within the polymer are attacked by esterases and other serine-like hydrolases, only relatively few enzymes have been biochemically characterized in detail. Tough some enzmes are availabe as commercial products. Mainly bacteria and fungi are known act on the polymer. A selection of known enzymes are listed below:

Cite: Buchholz, P.C.F., Feuerriegel, G., Zhang, H., Perez-Garcia, P., Nover, L.-L., Chow, J., Streit, W.R. and Pleiss, J (2022);
Plastics degradation by hydrolytic enzymes: The Plastics-Active Enzymes Database - PAZy
(download link for reference manager)

Microbial host/enzyme/geneEC numberReferenceGenBank/ UniProtPDB entryNCBI BLAST
Actinomadura keratinilytica T16-1, serine proteaseEC 3.4.-Sukkhum et al., 2009none
Amycolatopsis sp. strain 41, proteaseEC 3.4.-Pranamuda, 2001none
Amycolatopsis (Nocardia) orientalis, PLAse I (PLase1)EC 3.4.-Fan, 2008none
Amycolatopsis (Nocardia) orientalis, PLAse II (PLase2)EC 3.4.-Fan, 2008B0FLR6, ABY53108.1
Amycolatopsis (Nocardia) orientalis, PLAse III (PLase3)EC 3.4.-Fan, 2008B0FY08, ABY67151.1
Paenibacillus amylolyticus TB13, PLaAEC, 2003, Teeraphatpornchai, 2003Q83VDO BAC67195.1
Amycolatopsis (Nocardia) sp. strain K104-1EC 3.4Nakamura, 2001Q75UA4
Alcaligenes sp. , lipase PL Hoshino, 2002
Comamonas acidovorans TB-35, mainly PUR active esteraseEC, 1998BAA76305.1 BAA76305.1
Alcanivorax borkumensis, ABO2449, esteraseEC, 2016Q0VLQ1 Q0VLQ1
Rhodopseudomonas palustris, RPA1511, esteraseEC, 2016Q6N9M9 / RPA15114PSUQ6N9M9 / CAE26953.1
Lederbergia (Bacillus) lentus, protease, Subtilisin, 'Savinase' EC 3.4.-Oda, 2000P29600 P29600.1
Lederbergia (Bacillus) lentus, protease, Subtilisin BLEC 3.4.-Oda, 2000P29599 P29599.1
Lederbergia (Bacillus) subtilis, protease, Subtilisin,EC 3.4.-Oda, 2000
Lederbergia (Bacillus) licheniformis, protease, Subtilisin, subC EC 3.4.-Oda, 2000P00780 P00780.2
Thermobifida (Thermomonospora) alba AHK119, Est1 Hu, 2010, Kitadokoro, 2019D4Q9N1
Thermobifida alba AHK119, Ta_cut /Est119, Est2 Hu, 2010, Kitadokoro, 2019F7IX063VISBAK48590.1
Laceyella sacchari LP175, LP175 Hanphakphoom, 2014A0A291HVH1
Thermobifida cellulosilytica, Thc_cut1 Herrereo Acero, 2011, Ribitsch 2017E9LVH8
Thermobifida cellulosilytica, Thc_cut2 Herrereo Acero, 2011, Ribitsch 2017E9LVH95LUJ
Marine metagenome, esterase, MGS0109 (KC986401)EC, 2015AGT96415 AGT96415.1
Marine metagenome, esterase, MGS0010 (KF801579)EC, 2015AHG30919.1 AHG30919.1
Marine metagenome, esterase, MGS0105 (KC986400)EC, 2015AGT96414.1 AGT96414.1
Metagenome clone MGS0084EC, 2018KP347755.1
Metagenome clone MGS0156EC, 2018AKJ872645D8M
Metagenome clone GEN0105EC, 2018AKJ87216
PlaM4, depolymeraseEC, 2008AB302136 / A4UZ10 BAF57210.1
PlaM5, depolymeraseEC, 2008A4UZ11 BAF57211.1
PlaM7, depolymeraseEC, 2008AB302138 / A4UZ12 BAF57212.1
PlaM8, depolymeraseEC, 2008A4UZ13 BAF57213.1
PlaM9, depolymeraseEC, 2008AB302140 BAF57214.1
Parengyodontium album (Tritirachium album), Proteinase KEC P068735KXVAP06873.2
Aspergillus oryzae ATCC42149, cutinase CutL1EC:, 2005, Oda, 2000P52956 P52956.1
Cryptococcus sp. S-2, CLE, cutinaseEC:, 2005AB102945.1 / Q874E BAC67242.1
Cryptococcus (Saitozyma flava) flavus GB-1, CLE Ueda, 2021A0A0P0ZE81
Cryptococcus magnus, CmCut Ueda, 2021A0A060N5H2
Paraphoma sp. B47-9 Suzuki, 2014A0A060N399
Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica , PaE, PaCLE1 Shinozaki, 2012, Ueda,2021AB739034

  • pla.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/01/13 10:40
  • by Golo Feuerriegel