Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)


Polyethylene terephthalate (CHEBI:131701) is a synthetic polymer of repeating units of terephthalic acid (CHEBI:30043) and ethylene glycol (CHEBI:30742). PET is mainly used for the production of PET bottles, foil and various fibers in textile industry. PET is one of the few polymers, for which a number of microbial enzymes are known. They belong to the cutinases (EC, lipases (EC and carboxylesterases (EC /EC EC and can act on amorphous but not crystalline PET. These enzymes break the ester bond in the polymer to either produce bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET), mono (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) or terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). The enzymes act as exo-enzymes. MHET can subsequently be cleaved with a specific MHETase (EC and the TPA monomers degraded via cleavage of the aromatic ring structure using known aryl pathways (Wei et al., 2017; Danso et al., 2019, Taniguchi et al., 2019). PET-active enzymes are often designated 'PETases'. Notably, the majority of all PET-active enzmes are promiscous enzymes.

Currently known and biochemically characterized active PET hydrolases are listed below and grouped according to their phylogenetic affiliation. Predicted and not characterized enzymes are not included. For multiple PDB entries only one lead struture is included.

In case you are aware of PET-active biochemically characterized enzymes that are not listed below, please contact the PAZY team.

Cite: Buchholz, P.C.F., Feuerriegel, G., Zhang, H., Perez-Garcia, P., Nover, L.-L., Chow, J., Streit, W.R. and Pleiss, J (2022);
Plastics degradation by hydrolytic enzymes: The Plastics-Active Enzymes Database - PAZy
(download link for reference manager)

Microbial host/enzyme/geneEC numberReferenceGenBank/ UniProt/MGnifyPDB entryNCBI BLAST
Pseudomonadota (synonym with Proteobacteria)
Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, ISPETase, ISF6_4831
(→DuraPETase) (→ThermoPETase) (→Fast-PETase) (→HotPETase) (→DepoPETase)
EC, 2016; Han 2017; Cui, 2021; Son, 2019; Lu, 2022; Bell, 2022; Shi et al., 2023; Sevilla et al., 2023A0A0K8P6T75XFY, and othersWP_054022242.1
Oleispira antarctica RB-8, PET5, LipA (=Oacut)EC, 2018, Blasquez-Sanchez, 2021R4YKL9_OLEAN MBQ0729274.1
Vibrio gazogenes, PET6, BSQ33_03270 EC, 2018A0A1Z2SIQ1_VIBGA 7Z6BASA57064.1
Caldimonas brevitalea, PET12 (PbCut;SbCut), AAW51_2473 EC, 2018; Chen, 2021; Avilan,2023A0A0G3BI90_9BURK AKJ29164.1
Marinobacter sp., PLE628EC Cifuentes, 2022OK558825 7VMDOK558825.1
Marinobacter sp., PLE629EC Cifuentes, 2022OK558824 7VPAOK558824.1

Pseudomonas oleovorans/ pseudoalcaligenes DSM 50188,
EC, 2011; Haernvall, 2017ADK73612 ADK73612
Pseudomonas pelagia DSM 25163, PpelaLipEC, 2017 KU695573 ANP21910.1
Pseudomonas aestusnigri VGXO14, PE-H, B7O88_11480 EC, 2020A0A1H6AD45 6SBN, and othersWP_088276085.1
Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 53552, PmCEC, 2009N20M5AZM016 2FX52FX5_A
Pseudomonas saudimassiliensis, PsCutEC, 2023A0A078MGG8 8AISWP_044499735.1
Pseudomonas bauzanensis, PbauzCutEC, 2023A0A031MKR8 8AITWP_036989706.1
Pseudomonas alcaligenes, PaCutEC, 2023SUD16364.1 SUD16364.1
Moraxella sp.TA144, lip1, Mors1 EC Blasquez-Sanchez, 2021P198338SPKP19833.1
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, PpEst (tesA) EC Haernvall, 2017, Wallace, 2016W6R2Y2 WP_003460012.1
Pseudomonas sp., esterase MG8 EC Eiamthong, 2022MGYP000532440779 MGYP000532440779
Pseudomonas sp. strain 9.2, EstB EC Edwards et al., 2022WP_085690612 WP_085690612
Rhizobacter gumimpihilus NS21, RgPETase/RgCut-I EC Sagong, 2021, Avilan, 2023A4W93_059507DZT, and othersA4W93_05950
Rhizobacter gumimpihilus, RgCut-II EC Avilan, 2023WP_085749238.18AIRWP_085749238.1
Ketobacter sp., Enzyme 403 Erickson, 2022RLU00646.1 RLU00646.1
Ketobacter sp., Enzyme 409 Erickson, 2022RLT92980.1 RLT92980.1
Ketobacter alkanivorans, Enzyme 412 Erickson, 2022WP_101893509.1 WP_101893509.1
Comamonadaceae bacterium, Enzyme 406 Erickson, 2022ODU60407.1 ODU60407.1
Caldimonas taiwanensis+D57, CtPL (Enzyme 504) Chen, 2021; Erickson, 2022WP_062195544.1 WP_062195544.1
Acidovorax delafieldii, AdCut EC Avilan, 2023Q8RR62 BAB86909.1
Aquabacterium parvum, ApLip-Ec Ho, 2023
Burkholderia bacterium, BurPL Chen, 2021; Chen, 2021;Sagong, 2022; Huang, 2023A0A1F4JXW87CWGOGB27210
Pseudomonas sp., GlacPETase Qi, 2023
LCC, leaf compost metagenome, highly similar to HRB29 locus GBD22443EC, 2012; Shirke, 2018; Tournier, 2020G9BY574EBO and othersG9BY57.1
BhrPETase from HR29 bacterium, >96% identical to LCCEC, 2021GBD224437EOAGBD22443.1
Thermobifida (Thermomonspora) fusca
T. fusca DSM43793, BTA-1, TfHEC, 2006; Müller 2005; Kleeberg 1998; 2005Q6A0I45ZOAQ6A0I4
T. fusca DSM43793, BTA-2, TfHEC, 2006; Müller 2005; Kleeberg 1998; 2005AJ810119 Q6A0I3
T. fusca DSM44342, TfH42_Cut1EC Acero, 2011 E9LVI0_THEFU ADV92528.1
T. fusca (strain YX), WSH03-11, Tfu_0883EC, 2008; Su, 2013; Lykidis, 2007 Q47RJ6_THEFY Q47RJ6
T. fusca (strain YX), WSH03-11, Tfu_0882EC, 2008 Q47RJ7_THEFY Q47RJ7
T. fusca, TfCut_1 (Cut-1.kw3) (only active on 3PET; not on higher polymers!) Acero, 2011E5BBQ2 E5BBQ2
T. fusca, TfCut_2 (Cut-2.kw3)EC, 2019, Roth, 2014; Wei 2016E5BBQ3_THEFU4CG1CBY05530
T. fusca NRRL B-8184, Cut1EC, 2013JN129499.1 AET05798.1
T. fusca NRRL B-8184, Cut2EC, 2013JN129500.1 AET05799.1
T. fusca, Enzyme 701 Erickson, 2022WP_104613137.1 WP_104613137.1
T. fusca, Enzyme 702 Erickson, 2022ADM47605.17QJQADM47605.1
T. cellulosilytica DSM44535, Thc_Cut1EC Acero, 2011, Ribitsch 2017ADV92526.15LUIADV92526.1
T. cellulosilytica DSM44535, Thc_Cut2EC Acero, 2011 Ribitsch 2017ADV925715LUJADV92527.1
T. cellulosilytica, Enzyme 711 Erickson, 2022WP_083947829.17QJTWP_083947829.1
T. curvata DSM43183, Tcur_1278EC, 2014D1A9G5 ACY96861.1
T. curvata DSM43183, Tcur0390EC, 2014ACY95991.1 ACY95991.1
T. halotolerans, Thh_EstEC, 2012H6WX58 AFA45122.1
T. alba (AHK119), Est1 (Hydrolase 4); Enzyme 708EC, 2010; Erickson, 2022BAI99230 BAI99230.2
T. alba DSM43185, Tha_Cut1, cut1 EC, 2012E9LVH7 ADV92525.1
T. alba AHK119, Est119, est2EC, 2019F7IX06 6AIDBAK48590.1
Saccharomonospora (Thermoactinomyces) viridis AHK190, Cut190EC, 2014; Kawai, 2014; Oda, 2018W0TJ644WFK and othersBAO42836.1
Actinobacteria bacterium OK074, Enzyme 405 Erickson, 2022WP_082414832.1 WP_082414832.1
Allorhizocoloa rhizosphaerae, Enzyme 407 Erickson, 2022WP_117215036.1 WP_117215036.1
Nocardioidaceae bacterium, Enzyme 503 Erickson, 2022EGD44994.1 EGD44994.1
Marinactinospora thermotolerans, MtCut / Enzyme 606 Liu et al. 2022 Erickson, 2022,WP_078759821.17QJOWP_078759821.1
Actinobacteria bacterium OV320, Enzyme 607 Erickson, 2022WP_107095481.1 WP_107095481.1
Saccharopolyspora flava, Enzyme 611 Erickson, 2022WP_093412886.17QJPWP_093412886.1
Rhodococcus sp., Rcut (PBATh), OL660765 Won, 2022UNZ22463.1 UNZ22463.1
Streptomyces scabiei, Sub1 Jabloune, 2020QEX94755.1 QEX94755.1
Streptomyces sp. SM14, SM14est Almeida, 2019; Carr, 2023DAC80635 DAC80635
Compost metagenome, PHL-11 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37579.1 SAY37579.1
Compost metagenome, PHL-21 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37582.1 SAY37582.1
Amycolatopsis bacterium, PET40 Zhang, 2023WAU86704.18A2CWAU86704.1
Microbispora sp., SIBER-1 Tiong, 2023WOR09923 WOR09923
Bacillus subtilis4P3-11, BsEstB EC Ribitsch,2011 ADH43200.1 ADH43200.1
Thermoanaerobacter sp. , PHL-7 (PES-H1; PES-H2)EC, 2022; Pfaff, 20227NEI_A/B /7CUV_A, MBO2503201.1
Compost metagenome, PHL-31 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37583.1 SAY37583.1
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502, Cbotu_EstA2 Perz et al., 2015AKZ20828.1 AKZ20828.1
Aequorivita sp. CIP111184,PET27EC, 2022WP_111881932 WP_111881932
Kaistella (Chryseobacterium) jeonii, PET30EC, 2022WP_0393534277PZJWP_039353427
Chloroflexus sp. MS-G, Enzyme 202 Erickson, 2022YNPsite05_CeleraDRAFT_4014107QJM7QJM_A
Chloroflexi bacterium, IS103 Distaso, 2023UNZ81746 UNZ81746
Chloroflexi bacterium, IS123 Distaso, 2023UNZ81748 UNZ81748
Dehalococcoidia bacterium, IS113 Distaso, 2023UNZ81747 UNZ81747
Deinococcus maricopensis DSM 21211, PET1/DmPETase Danso et al., 2018; Makryniotis et al., 2023E8U721 ADV66860
Metagenome-derived without a phylogenetic affiliation
Metagenome-derived, no obvious affiliation, PET2, lipIAF5-2EC, 2018, Nakamura, 2021ACC95208.17ECB and othersACC95208.1
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 101 Erickson, 2022YNPsite06_CeleraDRAFT_263770
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 102 Erickson, 2022YNP6_02150
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 204 Erickson, 2022YNP18_240440
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 211 Erickson, 2022JzSedJan11_10004914
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 214 Erickson, 2022YNPsite06_CeleraDRAFT_160970
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 301 Erickson, 2022YNPsite06_CeleraDRAFT_367810
Metagenome-derived. no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 305 Erickson, 2022GxsBSedJan11_10251181
Metagenome-derived, no obvious affiliation, Enzyme 307 Erickson, 2022JGI20132J14458_10325381
Compost metagenome, PHL-41 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37584.1 SAY37584.1
Compost metagenome, PHL-51 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37587.1 SAY37587.1
Compost metagenome, PHL-61 Sonnendecker, 2022SAY37589.1 SAY37589.1
Candidatus Bathyarchaeota archaeon, PET46EC, 2023RLI42440.18B4URLI42440.1
Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica, lipase B, CalBEC, 2009, Carniel, 2017; Brackmann, 2023LIPB_PSEA21TCA and othersLIPB_PSEA2
Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica, CaLEC, 2023
Fusarium solani , FsCEC, 2005AAA33335.11AGY and othersAAA33335.1
Fusarium oxysporum, FoCut5aEC, 2015X0BTD85AJHEXK81749
Humicola insolens , HiCEC, 2009, Carniel, 2017; Brackmann, 2023A0A075B5G44OYL and others4OYY_A
Thermomyces lanuginosus, Lipozyme TLEC, 2008; Eberl, 2009; Brackmann, 2023
Moniliophthora roreri, MRCUT1ECázquez-Alcántara, 2021ESK97883 ESK97883
Rhizomucor miehei, RmLEC, 2023
Engineered enzymes without WT hydrolase activity
Actinia fragacea, FraC4 Robles-Martín, 2023

1 Only weight loss of PET substrate observed.

2 Only marginal concentrations of hydrolysis products released.

3 Only degradation of 3PET shown.

4 Non-catalytic actinoporin membrane pore. Catalytic triad and oxyanion hole were added by protein engineering.

  • pet.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/11/23 16:42
  • by Golo Feuerriegel