Polyamide (PA)

Polyamide (CHEBI:61445) is a polymer (thermoplast) of repeating units of aliphatic, semi-aromatic or aromatic molecules linked via amide bonds. The best-known synthetic polymers are Nylon and Kevlar. Polyamides are mainly used in textiles, automotive applications, carpets and sportswear. Remarkably, proteins as well as natural silk are polyamides per se. Based on this, it should be expected that nature has evolved enzymes that act on these non-native polymers. However, to date, there is no microorganism known that is able to fully degrade the intact high-molecular-weight polymer. Notably, some fungal peroxygenases/laccases have been proposed to be acting on the larger polymer. But today no enzyme sequence has been linked with those reports. However, several studies show that bacteria act on either linear or cyclic nylon oligomers with rather short chain lengths.

Currently known and biochemically characterized active PA oligomer hydrolases are listed below. Model enzymes are: NylA is a 6-aminohexanoate cyclic dimer hydrolase (amidase) (EI); NlyB is a linear 6-aminohexanoate dimer hydrolase (EII).; NylC hydrolyzes linear trimer, tetramer, and pentamer of 6-aminohexanoate by an endo-type reaction (EII). Predicted and not characterized enzymes are not included. For PDB entries only one lead structure is included. In case you are aware of PA-active (polymer or oligomer) biochemically characterized enzymes that are not listed below, please contact the PAZy team.

Cite: Buchholz, P.C.F., Feuerriegel, G., Zhang, H., Perez-Garcia, P., Nover, L.-L., Chow, J., Streit, W.R. and Pleiss, J (2022);
Plastics degradation by hydrolytic enzymes: The Plastics-Active Enzymes Database - PAZy
(download link for reference manager)

Microbial host/enzyme/geneReferenceGenBank/ UniProtPDB entryNCBI BLAST
Pseudomonas sp. (strain NK87), NylAKanagawa, 1989 NYLA_PSES8 P13397.2
Pseudomonas sp. (strain NK87), NylBKanagawa, 1989
Paenarthrobacter ureafaciens (previously Arthrobacter guttatus/ Flavobacterium sp.) strain K172, NylA on plasmid pOAD1 Kinoshita, 1975; Kinoshita, 1977; Yasuhira, 2010 NYLA_FLASK3A2P, 3A2QP13398.2
Paenarthrobacter ureafaciens (previously Arthrobacter guttatus/ Flavobacterium sp.) strain K172, NylB on plasmid pOAD1 Kinoshita, 1975;Negoro, 1992 NYLB_FLASK2ZLY and othersP07061.1
Paenarthrobacter ureafaciens (previously Arthrobacter guttatus/ Flavobacterium sp.) strain K172, NylC on plasmid pOAD1Kinoshita, 1975;Negoro, 1992; Kakudo, 1993 NYLC_FLASK5XYO and othersQ79F77.1
Agromyces sp. KY5R, NylCYasuhira, 2007 Q1EPR53AXG Q1EPR5.2
Kocuria sp. KY2, NylCYasuhira, 2007 Q1EPR4 Q1EPR4.1
Nocardia globerula strain IFO 13510, aryl acylamidaseYoshioka, 1991
Nocardia farcinica strain IFM10512, aryl acylamidaseHeumann, 2008 WP_011209364.1 WP_011209364.1
Pseudoxanthomonas sp. TN-N1, hydrolaseSasanami, 2022

  • pa.txt
  • Last modified: 2023/07/25 12:20
  • by Golo Feuerriegel